One in every of probably the most normally extinct punctuation marks, an errant comma may maybe properly perhaps be the difference between a complete sentence and a complete mess. On this submit, we’ll discover seven comma tips that may connect your writing concise and coherent.
Earlier than we dive in, what’s a comma anyway? You may maybe properly perhaps additionally think about a comma as a lighter mannequin of a period. Whereas a period ends a sentence full-discontinue, a comma is a smaller, softer cease. It’ll separate phrases, clauses, or concepts inside one sentence.
7 Comma Concepts Each Author Might perhaps perhaps furthermore aloof Know
- Two complete sentences can completely be linked with a comma using a coordinating conjunction.
- Spend a comma to hyperlink an incomplete sentence with a complete sentence.
- Spend the Oxford comma.
- Spend a comma between two coordinate adjectives that itemizing the identical noun.
- Spend a comma to spotlight additional, non-very well-known data a pair of noun.
- Be certain you intention commas precisely in quotes.
- Safe a comma before “whereas” to disagreement two points.
1. Two complete sentences can completely be linked with a comma when using a coordinating conjunction.
A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction positioned between phrases, phrases, clauses, or sentences of equal deplorable. English has seven well-known coordinating conjunctions — for, and, nor, nevertheless, or, but, so — that may maybe be extinct to weave collectively two complete sentences with a comma. You may maybe properly perhaps additionally train the mnemonic FANBOYS to endure in thoughts them.
Every of the above concepts are complete sentences. Nonetheless, the dearth of 1 in all our FANBOYS after the comma leads to a comma splice. The sentence is clunky with out the presence of a coordinating conjunction to hyperlink the two complete concepts in a single sentence.
That’s extra savor it! “So” is the coordinating conjunction that hyperlinks these two complete sentences collectively. Every concepts may maybe properly perhaps stand alone separated by a period, nevertheless our FANBOYS allow us to hyperlink them alongside facet the help of a comma. The Grateful Lifeless is your favorite band? It is sensible that you simply traveled so far to gape them.
2. Spend a comma to hyperlink an incomplete sentence with a complete sentence.
An incomplete sentence doesn’t particular a completely shaped thought and may maybe properly perhaps’t stand by itself. Nonetheless, you may maybe properly perhaps presumably additionally train a comma to hyperlink an incomplete sentence with a completely shaped sentence that expounds upon and completes the idea. For instance:
“Although I had work inside the morning” is an incomplete sentence. Ending it with a period makes it right into a cliffhanger of an unfinished thought, nevertheless a comma can connect the day.
The train of a comma and the next complete sentence “I traveled 3,500 miles to gape the Grateful Lifeless in Copenhagen.” manufacture this right into a grammatically good sentence. One factor tells me you didn’t manufacture it to work the next day, although!
3. Spend the Oxford comma.
The Oxford comma is a controversial matter on this planet of punctuation. There may be monumental historic debate on whether or not or not the Oxford comma is obligatory, nevertheless we proper right here at HubSpot suggest using it for accuracy and readability to your writing.
What is the Oxford comma?
The Oxford comma is the final comma in a guidelines of points. For instance: I would like a stapler, some rye bread, and a gallon of glue.
I don’t know what you may maybe properly perhaps presumably additionally very neatly be making, nevertheless that’s the wonderful train of an Oxford comma in a guidelines of objects. Proper right here’s one different instance:
This sentence states that you simply watched a documentary about three apparent and influential Novel Yorkers. The Oxford comma makes it decided that these are three assorted people. If we omit the Oxford comma, points can achieve a diminutive bit complicated:
Until Babe Ruth lived a secret lifetime of crime and skinny-crust pizza, you may maybe properly perhaps presumably additionally gape how the absence of the Oxford comma on this sentence may maybe properly perhaps confuse readers. Whereas each variations of the sentence are technically good, we suggest the Oxford comma to fabricate sure your sentences are freed from ambiguity.
4. Spend a comma between two coordinate adjectives that itemizing the identical noun.
Coordinate adjectives are two or extra adjectives that itemizing the identical noun. Whereas you flip-flop your adjectives or pop an “and” in between them and the sentence aloof is sensible, you then’ve purchased coordinate adjectives. Whereas you’re using coordinate adjectives, endure in thoughts to separate them with a comma.
Psychedelic and spontaneous are coordinate adjectives as a result of they collectively itemizing the noun, which is the track of the Grateful Lifeless. You may maybe properly perhaps additionally reverse the repeat or substitute the comma for an “and” and the sentence methodology the identical factor. We suggest using a comma.
It’s refined, nevertheless the sentence doesn’t circulation precisely with out a comma between psychedelic and spontaneous.
5. Spend a comma (or pair of commas) to separate non-very well-known data in a sentence.
Although we fancy the data, “in a quest for the suitable rack of ribs” is non-very well-known to the well-known level of the sentence, which is that my partner’s father spent methodology too worthy on his grill. You may maybe properly perhaps additionally train a single comma with the non-very well-known data on the beginning up of the sentence, or a pair of commas to rope it off inside the heart, nevertheless don’t overlook your commas when together with extraneous element.
With out commas to separate the non-very well-known data, the sentence is prolonged-winded and grammatically unsuitable. I’ll connect a pair of commas with these ribs, please!
6. Be certain you intention commas precisely when using quotes.
In celebrated, you will bear to train a comma to introduce quotes or dialogue in a sentence.
The motive we want a comma on this scenario is that the quoted self-discipline fabric is syntactically simply, that means it stands apart from the encircling sentence. Don’t be incorrect! Introduce that mid-sentence quote with a comma.
Nonetheless, as there normally are inside the English language, there are exceptions to this rule. If the quote blends into the encircling sentence, normally with the utilization of a conjunction, you may maybe properly perhaps presumably additionally omit the comma.
No comma is obligatory on this scenario for the reason that quote blends into the sentence with the utilization of the conjunction “that.”
7. Safe a comma before “whereas” to disagreement two concepts.
Whereas you might be using “whereas” in a sentence to if truth be told indicate “regardless of the simple fact that” or “whereas,” endure in thoughts to intention a comma before it to withhold the that means of your sentence decided.
The train of “whereas” on this sentence permits us to disagreement two BBQ ideologies.
With out the comma, the that means of whereas technically changes to “concurrently,” which doesn’t manufacture sense on this context.
Moreover, whereas you occur to are using “whereas” on the beginning up of the sentence, you will bear to intention a comma on the stop of the clause that it introduces.
The train of a comma after the clause that “whereas” introduces permits us to attach the that means as “whereas” and disagreement the two concepts.
At the beginning printed Sep 21, 2022 7: 00: 00 AM, as a lot as this level September 21 2022